He proposes that autism be seen as a difference, and not a disability.
Different countries and societies need autism advocates to continue to speak out against prejudice toward autistics.
At the same time, it’s important to note the need to support those whose differences make it hard to function in a society that values social communication.
High Functioning Autism Defined
Although high functioning autism is a very common term, it’s never had a very strong definition. Prior to 2014, high functioning autism was a way to refer to autistics with an average to above average IQ. From 2014 forward, if we look at the new definition of autism proposed by DSM 5, we see that high functioning autism would means that a person needs minimal support to function in relationships or at work.
The child spends more time involved with objects and physical systems than with people (Swettenham et al., 1998);
The child communicates less than other children do;
The child tends to follow their own desires and beliefs rather than paying attention to, or being easily influenced by, others’ desires and beliefs (Baron- Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985);
The child shows relatively little interest in what the social group is doing, or being a part of it (Bowler, 1992; Lord, 1984);
The child has strong, persistent interests;
The child is very accurate at perceiving the details of information (Plaisted, O’Riordan & Baron-Cohen, 1998a; Plaisted, O’Riordan & Baron-Cohen, 1998b)
The child notices and recalls things other people may not (Frith, 1989);
The child’s view of what is relevant and important in a situation may not coincide with others (Frith, 1989);
The child may be fascinated by patterned material, be it visual (shapes), numeric timetables), alphanumeric (number plates), or lists (of cars, songs, etc.);
The child may be fascinated by systems, be they simple (light switches, water taps), a little more complex (weather fronts), or abstract (mathematics);
The child may have a strong drive to collect categories of objects (e.g., bottletops, train maps), or categories of information (types of lizard, types of rock, types of fabric, etc.); and
The child has a strong preference for experiences that are controllable rather than unpredictable.
High Functioning Autism Characteristics as per the DSM-5
As per Wikipedia,
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, abbreviated as DSM-5, is the 2013 update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) classification and diagnostic tool. In the United States the DSM serves as a universal authority for psychiatric diagnosis. Treatment recommendations, as well as payment by health care providers, are often determined by DSM classifications, so the appearance of a new version has significant practical importance.
Remember that the DSM-5 is based on a medical model that diagnoses disorders and accompanying signs and symptoms. In that context, DSM-5 lists the following characteristics:
Delay in motor skills
Difficulty interacting with others
Difficulty understanding abstract uses of language, such as humor, or give and take in a conversation
Obsessive interests in specific items or information
Strong reaction to textures, smells, sounds, or sight or other stimuli that others might not notice, such as flickering lights.
Speaking without emotion (this only appears the case from observing facial expressions – in actuality, an autistic may actually feel more deeply than the average person)
The info graphic above [photo credit courtesy of the CDC]illustrates the challenge of using the term “high functioning”. While IQ is always average to above average, to superior, every single person has varying difficulties with social interaction, communication, behaviors, sensory issues, and motor issues.
“The difference between high-functioning and low-functioning is that high-functioning means your deficits are ignored, and low- functioning means your assets are ignored.” Laura Tisoncik (from Circle of Moms blog)
As the quote above illustrates, even though a person may have “high functioning” autism, this person may need help to address any one of domains on the left.
High Functioning Autism versus Aspergers
Before the DSM-5 revision, Aspergers was considered to be a distinct type of autism. The main difference separating Aspergers from high functioning autism was speech. For Aspergers to be diagnosed, there could be no delays in acquiring language from an early age. However, both Aspergers and autism children struggle with understanding the social context of speech.
Many researchers in other parts of the world, including Dr. Tony Attwood, disagree with DSM-5’s elimination of Aspegers from their terminology.
High Functioning Autism Diagnosis
Please read these articles I’ve written about Aspergers and high functioning diagnosis:
Ideally, professionals who understand autism spectrum conditions in-depth can give coaching and cognitive behavior therapy to aid with understanding social communication, self-awareness, and executive functioning.